Enhancing Reasoning in Large Language Models: ETH Zurich and Microsoft Collaborate to Introduce SCREWS, an Artificial Intelligence Framework

About the SCREWS Framework

Large Language Models (LLMs) have made significant progress in various reasoning tasks. However, there are cases where the initial output of these models is not always accurate, and refinement techniques are needed to improve their performance. In the past, these refinement techniques have often used a single, fixed reasoning technique, which may limit their adaptability. To address this issue, researchers from ETH Zurich and Microsoft Semantic Machines have developed the SCREWS framework, a modular approach to reasoning about changes.

The Modular Approach to Refinement

The SCREWS framework consists of three core components: Sampling, Conditional Resampling, and Selection. These components work together to iteratively refine the LLM’s output and improve its performance. The researchers instantiate SCREWS by selecting specific submodules for each module, tailored to the specific task and input sequence. This modular approach allows for flexibility and enables the exploration of different refinement tactics.

Improving Performance with SCREWS

To demonstrate the effectiveness of the SCREWS framework, the researchers evaluated it on various reasoning tasks, including multi-hop question answering, arithmetic reasoning, and code debugging. Compared to standard sampling and resampling procedures, their suggested solutions showed significant improvements in performance, with an increase of 10-15%. They also highlight the value of heterogeneous resampling, which can enhance the model’s logic and improve baselines at a low cost. Additionally, the researchers emphasize the importance of a model-based selection approach, allowing the model to revert to more certain outputs.


The SCREWS framework offers a modular approach to refining the output of Large Language Models. By combining Sampling, Conditional Resampling, and Selection, the framework provides a flexible and adaptable strategy for improving the performance of LLMs. The researchers’ experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of their proposed solutions, showing significant improvements in various reasoning tasks. As LLMs continue to evolve and advance, frameworks like SCREWS offer a promising avenue for further optimization and refinement.

Editor Notes

In this article, we explored the SCREWS framework for refining the output of Large Language Models. The researchers from ETH Zurich and Microsoft Semantic Machines introduced a modular approach that combines Sampling, Conditional Resampling, and Selection to improve the performance of LLMs. Their experiments showed significant improvements in various reasoning tasks, highlighting the value of this framework in enhancing the logic and accuracy of LLMs. As the field of language models continues to evolve, innovative frameworks like SCREWS pave the way for further advancements and optimizations.

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